فقه التوبة: الحلقة الثانية (توبة العبد من ذنوبه التي لا يعلمها):

الأربعاء 18 شعبان 1437ﻫ admin

الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين:

فإن الإنسان قد فطر على الجهل والظلم لنفسه كما قال تعالى {إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الْأَمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأَبَيْنَ أَنْ يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا وَحَمَلَهَا الْإِنْسَانُ إِنَّهُ كَانَ ظَلُومًا جَهُولًا} [الأحزاب: 72]

ومن أعظم الجهل جهل الإنسان بذنوبه فقد يظن العبد أنه يعلم ذنوبه كلها وقد ذكر ابن القيم رحمه الله ـ أن ما لا يعلمه العبد من ذنوبه أكثر مما يعلمه!!

وإذا كان الأمر كذلك  فكيف النجاة؟؟

يجيب ابن القيم عن ذلك بقوله:

 "ولا ينجي من هذا إلا توبة عامة، مما يعلم من ذنوبه ومما لا يعلم، فإن ما لا يعلمه العبد من ذنوبه أكثر مما يعلمه، ولا ينفعه في عدم المؤاخذة بها جهله إذا كان متمكنا من العلم، فإنه عاص بترك العلم والعمل، فالمعصية في حقه أشد،وَفِي صَحِيحِ ابْنِ حِبَّانَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «الشِّرْكُ فِي هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ([1])، فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: فَكَيْفَ الْخَلَاصُ مِنْهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ قَالَ: أَنْ تَقُولَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لَا أَعْلَمُ»([2]) . فهذا طلب الاستغفار مما يعلمه الله أنه ذنب، ولا يعلمه العبد.

وَفِي الصَّحِيحِ عَنْهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ «أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَدْعُو فِي صِلَاتِهِ: اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي خَطِيئَتِي وَجَهْلِي، وَإِسْرَافِي فِي أَمْرِي، وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي، اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي جِدِّي وَهَزْلِي، وَخَطَأِي وَعَمْدِي، وَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ عِنْدِي، اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ، وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ، وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي، أَنْتَ إِلَهِيٌّ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ»([3])

وَفِي الْحَدِيثِ الْآخَرِ: «اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي ذَنْبِي كُلَّهُ، دِقَّهُ وَجِلَّهُ، خَطَأَهُ وَعَمْدَهُ، سِرَّهُ وَعَلَانِيَتَهُ، أَوَّلَهُ وَآخِرَهُ»([4])"([5]) .

وكتبه المشرف العلمي



([1])لم أقف عليه في صحيح ابن حبان وقد عزاه شيخ الإسلام وابن القيم في أكثر من موضع له فالله أعلم.

([2])والمراد هنا الشرك الأصغر كالرياء وحلف الرجل بغير الله وقوله لولا فلان  وفلان …. إلخ. وأما الشرك الأكبر فإنه ظاهر لا خفاء به.

([3])أخرجه "البُخَارِي" (1120) ومسلم (1758) من حديث ابن عباس ـ رضي الله عنهما ـ .

([4])أخرجه مسلم (1018) من حديث أبي هريرة ـ رضي الله عنه ـ.

([5])مدارج السالكين بين منازل إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين (1/ 283)

 

 

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